- Margaret Angel
- Judy Brockie
- Ruth Chaffey
- Diana Dove
- Lillian Dwyer
- Venissa Fancy
- Kelley Fewer
- Joan Foster
Oh the places you’ll go…..when you take a rug hooking class with this very talented lady.
Trained as a Commercial/Product Illustration Photographer who has also spent many years working with the Provincial Museum and The Rooms.
Margaret’s textile and visual arts studies span over 40 years with textile artists in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, British Columbia and Hawaii. She studied commercial photography at Sheridan College in Ontario (1975-1977) and photography and art history at The Banff Center School of Fine Arts in Alberta (1973).
“Recycling and reconnecting are important elements to my work yet I try to create a fresh approach to a traditional craft by introducing contrasting textiles or by presenting an image slightly out of context. Every one-of-a-kind work tells a story both with the history of the reused materials and through the design itself. I particularly enjoy the conceptual process and the journey to create a finished piece.”
Margaret comes from a long line of craft enthusiasts, her Mother’s sister being Anna Templeton, major contributor to and the namesake for the Anna Templeton Centre in St. John’s where creativity is a way of life.
Since 1972, Margaret has been rug hooking, having taken her first class from Genevieve Tapper of Torbay who was hired by Templeton to teach at Vocational Education Training Department. She hasn’t stopped taking classes since and has experience in Dyeing, Traditional Hooking, Geometric, and Natural Dyeing with Wool, Punch Needle, Grenfell Style, Rosemaling, Design & Color Theory and Hooking the Masters. Margaret has also taken classes in stained glass, crochet, wire work, leatherwork, drawing & painting, photo etching, felting, reverse appliqué, bead embroidery, knitting, and quilting, often combing the various fibres in her pieces.
Margaret has served on the Guild Executive and was certified as a Guild Instructor in 2010. She particularly enjoys teaching Stumpwork, creating dimensional scenes of our forest and landscapes.
Margaret sells commissioned pieces, exhibits regularly at the Devon House Gallery of the Craft Council of NL and has had her work featured in Rug Hooking Magazine (Feb 2011 and Dec 2013)
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2010
- TIGHR (The International Guild of Hooking Artists)
- Surface Design Association
- The St. John’s Guild of Embroiders
- Juried Member, The Craft Council of Newfoundland and Labrador
- The Rug Hooking Guild of Nova Scotia
Harbour Grace, NL
Since first learning rug hooking in 1986 at the Anna Templeton Centre, St. John’s, NL, Judy has continued to study the craft by taking classes from some very notable instructors such as Doris Norman, Kathleen Gorman, Joan Foster, Gina R. Hoyles, Margaret Angel, Jon Ciemiewitz, Diane Krys, Linda Low and others.
Courses such as Primitive Rug Hooking, Under the Sea, Celtic Art and Heriate, Creative Stitches, Bringing Animals to Life, and Hooking with Hosiery as well as a number of others have allowed Judy to craft her rug hooking skills that allows her to create works of fiber art fit to be juried and win awards.
Having received her Newfoundland and Labrador Guild Teaching Certification in 2013, Judy prefers to teach Beginner, though a beginner class with Judy may certainly be considered Beginner/Advanced.
Judy designs her own mats and prefers to use good quality linen or finely woven burlap. She has sold her original hooked mats locally, across Canada and a few in the United States. Her patterns are such that she’s received permission requests from other rug hookers to use her designs.
Her work has been displayed in several exhibitions around the province, including a piece she hooked for the Ronald McDonald House Hooked Rug Tapestry (click here to see more)
- Newfoundland and Labrador Rug Hooking Guild, Teacher Certification 2013
- Juried member of the Newfoundland Labrador Craft Council
- Nova Scotia Rug Hooking Guild
- 2013 Arts and Letters Competition in the Visual Art: Senior Division
Having taken her first rug hooking class from Linda Peckford in Lewisporte in 1995, Ruth became a captivated and avid rug hooker who has dedicated herself to the craft and most certainly to our Guild. She has served on the Executive since first joining, including serving as President for a number of terms and five years as our Guild’s Rug School Director.
Ruth is an active rug hooking instructor and is one of our local suppliers for rug hooking patterns and dyed wool fabrics.
Now retired from her career as a Licensed Practical Nurse, Ruth enjoys rug hooking more than ever. She has taken a number of courses in and around Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia where she’s learned from some of the best in the craft, Elizabeth Walker, Jeanne Field, Edie Cole, Germaine James and Jon Ciemiewicz.
Ruth particularly enjoys researching older traditional Newfoundland and Labrador rugs and reproducing them in hopes of keeping the designs fresh. She uses a variety of fabrics, depending on the piece, and enjoys the challenge of developing her own dye swatches to create the piece as she sees it. Ruth has exhibited her mats at various venues and has been fortunate enough to sell some of her pieces. An honorary life-time member of our Guild, Ruth is a never ending participant who has had her work commissioned to reflect the buildings of Battle Harbour and her son’s cat just to name a few.
- Rug Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2003
Diana and her husband have led a varied and interesting life, both in Ontario and here in Newfoundland and Labrador. Diana first learned rug hooking from her father when she was just a teenager, using a homemade frame and his old shirts to hook her mats.
In 1990, she and her husband began sheep farming, a heaven on earth business for any rug hooker, as now there was a constant supply of wool.
Diana’s next rug hooking instructor was Grace Tanfara, a local rug hooker from whome she learned Shading Flowers, Sculptin, Portraits, Fancy Stitches, Pencil Shading and Color Planning.
Diana began her OHCG teaching training program in 2001 and was certified in 2014.
In 2002, The Doves returned to live in Newfoundland and soon after, began operating the NeGeira House a beautiful B & B in Carbonear, which also hosted Dove Woollery, selling various products related to rug hooking, local handmade soaps, and a variety of other handcrafted items including gorgeous teddy bears made from 100% woolen blankets.
In 2014 the Doves made another move, this time taking them to Twillingate, where they now own and operate the Dove’s Nest B & B and where they still continue to operate Dove Wollery.
Already a member of RHGNL since 1998, Diana immersed herself into the Guild, attending as many annual rug schools as possible as she worked toward receiving her Teaching Certificate which she obtained in 2008
Diana is well versed in rug hooking, dyes her own yarns and is teaches courses from Beginner through to Advance Courses such as Shading flowers, Sculpting, Fancy Stitches ,Oriental Rugs, Animals, Dyeing, Tessellations, Story Mats and Combining Rug Hooking And Braiding.
Memberships: Rug Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador, Certified Guild Teacher 2008
Ontario Hooking Craft Guild, Certified Guild Teacher 2014
5 Drongs Hill
Twillingate, NL A0G 4M0
Phone: (709) 884 1936
Lillian has been hooking mats since the late 1990’s. Since joining RHGNL in 2001, she has taken classes in Fine Shading, Rag-a-Jack, Hooking with Hosiery, Geometric, Dyeing, Sculpting, Sea Scenes & Sky, Memories, Village Homes, Picture This, Creative Stitches, Punch Needle, Hooking Faces, Designing and Hooking Your Own Primitive Rug, Come Play with the Masters, and Animals. She works from photographs and/or patterns she draws herself.
Since becoming an Instructor with the Guild in 2009, Lillian most enjoys teaching Beginners. In particular, she encourages her students to feel the influences around them as they bring their mats to life. To tell the story, through the use of color and direction where even sounds and movement can be detected. She did just that when she was chosen to produce a piece for the beautiful Fogo Island Inn and designed her piece based on ‘The Fogo Process’ the interactive use of film and videotape to foster community awareness and identity. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca
Currently, Lillian is combining her love of rug hooking with an interest in weaving which adds dimension to her work.
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2009
- Rug Hooking Guild of Nova Scotia
- Winds and Waves Artisan’s Guild on Fogo Island
Her first hook was handmade by her Dad and was a cut off nail inserted into a wooden handle. Her first rug hooking instructor was her Mom when she was just a very young girl. But, it wasn’t until the fall of 1995 when she joined the Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, that Venissa truly became a rug hooker.
Linda Peckford’s beginner class was her first real foray into the world of rug hooking. Venissa followed this with: Theme rugs with Jeanie Field, Colour and Design with Elizabeth Tucker, Creative Stitches with Sue Dunphy, Northern Style Hooking with Hosiery with Joan M. Young, Seascapes with Norma Silverstein, Picture This and Bringing Animals to Life with Jon Ciemiewiecz, Designing Hand Hooked Rugs with Deanne Fitzpatrick, Introduction to Portraits and Hooking Faces with Beverly Neville, Colour using The Ives Colour Wheel with June Young, Basic Dying with Barbie Baker-Dykens, Sculpting a Pin with Diana Dove, Let’s Face It with Michelle Micarelli, Beginner Spinning with Claire B. Tilley, Stumpwork in Hooking with Margie Angel, and Teacher Training with Joan M. Young.
Having met the requirements to become a NL Guild instructor in 2003, Venissa has taught many courses since but her favourite to teach is Colour, Design and Landscapes.
Her work has been exhibited around the province, including at The Rooms and other provincial museums as well as at local exhibits where she has won or placed for her rug hooking works.
Venissa has served our Guild in various capacities, including President. Her classes are filled with valuable rug hooking skills and very much encouragement, especially to the novice rug hooker.
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification, 2003
- The Newfoundland and Labrador Women’s Institutes
- Winds and Waves Artisan’s Guild
- he Welcome Mat (on-line)
Blue Ribbon award at for “Henry” at The Women’s Institute Provincial Convention
In 1999, Kelley and her mother enrolled in a beginner’s rug hooking course offered by the RHGNL. Since that first class, she has hooked in a variety of styles and with different materials, and has been fortunate to study with many accomplished artists: Germaine James, Iris Simpson, Norma Silverstein, Celia Charleton, Doris Norman, Mary Martin, Jon Ciemiewicz, Gene Shepherd, Deanne Fitzpatrick, and Kaffe Fassett.
Encouraged by RHGNL teachers Joan Foster, Venissa Fancy, and Ruth Chaffey, Kelley completed the requirements set by the guild, and obtained her teacher certification in 2014.
Kelley has been actively involved with the guild since becoming a member, serving on the executive in several positions: resources, treasurer, and, currently, president.
Kelley lives in a small town on the northeast coast of Newfoundland, where she teaches music in a K-12 school by day; by night, she revels in a myriad of creative mediums. She loves to wear black, and is always covered in wool dust.
- Rurg Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2014
Joan Foster, who is considered to be a local expert in rug hooking, makes her home in Springdale, NL. She is a founding member of our Guild and has held several executive positions including President during which time she was instrumental for the Heritage Hooked Mat Registry with the Newfoundland and Labrador Archives, which began in 1997. Other major contributions to our Guild was with the 2006 publication of our book “Hooked Mats of Newfoundland and Labrador: Beauty Born of Necessity” and the coordination of the Light House Project in celebration of 50 years of the Canadian Coast Guard in Newfoundland and Labrador. (Click here to see more on these projects)
Since retiring from teaching business administration at the adult level, Joan offers beginner to advanced classes, specializing in pictorials. She has a special interest in the Grenfell hooking with hosiery style of rug hooking. In 2006, Joan co-ordinated and instructed a 10 week rug hooking course for the College of the North Atlantic in St. Anthony in an effort to renew Grenfell style mat hooking in that area. (Click here to see more on Dr. Wilfred Grenfell and The Industrial)
Certified Rug Hooking Instructor for NL Rug Hooking Guild. Joan has also achieved:
- 1996 Skill and Technique Award for a hooked mat – Green Bay Agricultural Fall Fair Craft and Competition
- 1998 Demonstrated rug hooking, Canadian Museum of Civilization in Hull, Quebec
- 2001 and 2016 First Place Ribbons – NL Women’s Institutes Triennial Convention Craft Competition
- 2003 NL Craft Council first award for Preservation of Traditional Craft Skill
- 2004 RHGNL Life Time Membership
- 2005 NL Craft Council Members’ Exhibit Technical Excellence for entry: Salt Cod and Handbars
- 2007 Artist in Residence at Battle Harbour Historic Site in Labrador
Joan has exhibited at Canadian Museum of Civilization in Hull, Quebec; The Rooms in St. John’s, NL, Craft Council of Newfoundland and Labrador and wherever her travels take her to instruct. She holds a ‘Crafts of Character’ Certification from the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador and is a Juried Member of the Craft Council of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Her mats have been featured in Rug Hooking Magazine, A Needle Pulling Thread, and other publications including various Guild newsletters.
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Nova Scotia
- Sauder Village, Ohio, USA
- Newfoundland and Labrador Rug Hooking Guild, Teacher Certification 2003
- Nova Scotia Rug Hooking Guild
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 709-673-3086
Giving credit to her mom and maternal grandmother for the ability to work with her hands in various forms of fibre art, Winnie has found her niche using upcycled clothing to create beautiful yet serviceable hooked pieces, including bags and floor mats.
With a background in administrative assisting, she has been honing her skills in rug hooking since 2001 when she took a beginner class from NL Guild Teacher Venissa Fancy at the annual rug hooking school.
Since that first class, she has taken Geometrics and Hook Your Own House(Joan Foster), Pictorials (Lillian Dwyer), Landscapes (Barbara LeDuc), Scrolls (Ruth Chaffey), Rosmaling (Edie Cole), Tessellations (the late Linda Low), Bringing Animals to Life (Jon Ciemiewicz), Wild Women (Cecilia Charlton) and Portraits (Beverly Neville and Ruth Downing). Having become a NL Guild certified teacher in 2012, Winnie especially enjoys teaching beginner classes in the Traditional Newfoundland method using upcycled clothing. While she uses a variety of fabrics for hooking, her favourite is still strips of t-shirt.
Winnie has served on the Guild Executive as Eastern Regional Director, Newsletter Co-Chair and is currently Social Media Director. She has been involved with two major projects of the Guild. Co-Chairing with Jennifer Button the Cupids Legacy Tapestry depicting 400 years of Cupids history. She chaired The Ronald McDonald House Hooked Rug Tapestry which raised $25,000.00 for the House.
Retiring from her professional life in December of 2015, Winnie is persuing a life long dream and has recently established Hooked Creations NL. With a focus on helping others achieve a more personal overall wellnes, she is bringing the benefits of rug hooking to others through beginner and advanced classes in the traditional Newfoundland method.
Newfoundland and Labrador Craft Council Juried – July 2017
Dept. of Tourism, Culture, Innovation and Industry, GOVNL, – October 2017
Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2012
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
After taking a wide range of arts and crafts courses, Heather found her niche in the field of traditional rug hooking. She took her first rug hooking class in Ontario in 1976 from the legendary Jeanne Field, an expert hooker and a leader in the resurrection of the craft. She hooked with the Ontario Hooking Craft Guild for 7 years, acquiring a wide range of skills through workshops with Jeanne and several other OHCG instructors.
When Heather took an early retirement in 2002 and moved from Halifax to Mahone Bay, she began to study local rug hooking styles, joined the Rug Hooking Guild of Nova Scotia and served as Director for the South Shore Region. She has taken numerous courses at RHGNS rug schools.
In 2007, she joined the Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador and has attended RHGNL summer rug camp ever since. Heather is especially interested in learning traditional Newfoundland hooking styles. In 2012 she became a certified RHGNL teacher. She tries to hook at least one piece in every new style she discovers and loves to add new techniques to her repertoire of hooking skills.
In addition to demonstrating traditional Maritime hooking at the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic in Lunenburg, she teaches workshops, designs original pieces and enjoys hooking with a number of local and regional groups. Heather is also a member of ATHA, the Association of Traditional Hooking Artists. Heather has participated and organized many group shows in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and PEI. Several of her pieces have been featured in guild publications and in Rug Hooking Magazine.
Her 2010 solo show, Expanding Horizons, at the Black Duck Gallery in Lunenburg was designed to illustrate a dozen different rug hooking styles, documenting the evolution of rug hooking from a necessary domestic task to an art form. Heather does not see any contradiction in being identified as both a heritage artisan and a contemporary fibre artist. While stressing the importance of preserving traditional styles, techniques and materials, she is also designing and creating colourful and innovative multi-fibre pieces in her studio by the sea near Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2012
- Rug Hooking Guild of Nova Scotia
- ATHA, the Association of Traditional Hooking Artists
Diane Hodder (Associate Teacher)
A Newfoundlander who spent her working years on mainland Canada, Diane was first introduced to rug hooking while living in Ottawa. She did little hooking until meeting up with a hooking group on Prince Edward Island around 2002. She has been an avid rug hooker since her retirement as a Computer Systems Analyst.
Since returning to live in Newfoundland in 2009, Diane has been an active Guild Executive Member, currently serving as Membership Director.
Her work has been exhibited in PEI, while living there she was a juried member of the PEI Craft Council. Many of her rugs have sold, both in PEI and NL. She has also done commission work.
Diane has attended rug schools in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador. During her many travels, including cruises, she has taken rug hooking related courses on Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Australia, Italy and Spain. She has taken courses with many teachers, such as Deanne Fitzpatrick, Jon Ciemiewicz, Elizabeth Black, Gene Shepherd, Anne Eastwood, Joan Young, Beth Calabrese, Heather Gordon, Joan Foster, Molly White, Sara Judith, Susie Stephenson, Rita Jenkins, Wanetta Evans, Doris Norman, Norma Silverstein, Carol Harvey Clark, Iris Simpson, Linda Low, Cheryln Brubaker, Sarah Ladd, Susan Feller, Heather Ritchie, Jo Franco and Judith Stephenson. Course topics such as: Grenfell, Tessellations, Designing, Dyeing, Sculpturing, Punch Needle, Creative Stitches, etc…
Using a combination of recycled fabrics (her favourite being Pendelton wool shirts), Diane also uses new wool, some of which she dyes herself. She considers her hooking style as primitive hooking, hooked with wide strips of 100% wool fabric. She also enjoys quilting, working with 100 percent cotton and hand-quilting all of her quilts. Her hooked mats are stunning and she is available for commission pieces upon request.
Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification (Associate)
NS Rug Hooking Guild
The International Guild of Handhooking Rugmakers (TIGHR).
Cultural Craft Group of Partners which identifies and produces crafts that reflect the history and atmosphere of the Bonavista Penisula.
A RHGNL member since 1995, Alice has served many Executive positions, including President. Having received accreditation as a Rug Hooking Instructor in 2003, Alice feels you have to ‘learn the basics first’ before endeavoring on to more advanced levels. She preferred teaching Beginner Classes so she could instill that thought in new rug hookers.
Drawing from life around her, Alice particularly enjoys using rug hooking to interpret how life was lived in the past, particularly, life in the out port.
Alice has chaired and/or been part of RHGNL Exhibits at The Ryan Premises, Bonavista; The Rooms, St. John’s; Mary March Museum, Grand Falls-Windsor; Diamond House, Glovertown; The Beaches Heritage Centre, Eastport; Hooked on Aviation, two venues, the Arts & Culture Centre, Gander and the Gander International Airport; as well as the visiting Exhibit, The Lighthouses of NL.
Alice makes her home in Gander with her husband of more than 50 years and is very much involved in the lives of her two sons and their families, especially her Grandson and two Granddaughters.
While Alice no longer teachers at the Guild level, she still very much enjoys guiding new rug hookers along in their pieces. Currently hosting 23 members, The Hooking Matters Branch in Gander was started by Alice, has been active since 2005. The Branch and the Guild, continue to rely on her keen sense of life around us and how to interpret that when hooking strips into backing.
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2003
- NL Women’s Institute
Since attending a mid-winter hook-in in Grand Falls-Windsor in 2007, Christine continued to self-teach until she was able to attend RHGNL’s annual rug school where she took Joan Foster’s beginner course.
Now, a regular at the rug school and an active Guild Member, Christine has also taken classes in stained glass, fine shading, design you own, tessellations, and stump work.
While not into designing her own patterns, Christine enjoys recreating pictures, her favourite materials are rug warp and yarn.
Christine loves rug hooking but what she enjoys more is being able to give her work to people she knows will enjoy and/or benefit from them such as her siblings. She is generous with her mats to charities such as her most recent donation to the Rotary Club of GFW for a Hospice fundraiser.
A mat created from the ‘heart’ is one of the most beautiful pieces you’ll find. That’s Christine Little.
- Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2012
Heart’s Delight, Newfoundland
Retired Anglican Priest, Marilyn Moore who lives in Heart’s Delight, has been rug hooking since 2007. Since taking a Beginner course, she has also taken classes in Color and Design, Newfoundland Outport Scenes, Celtic, Grenfell Method, Exploring Textures & Fibres, Under the Sea, William Morris, Animals and Geometrics.
Marilyn is influenced and draws on photographs and nature to create her rugs. She also tole paints and has painted with oils, again bringing these skills to her rug hooking.
Certified to teach for the Guild since 2012, she feels her strength is in helping her students create Stained Glass, Newfoundland Scenes, Underwater, Christmas Designs and Pictorials.
Marilyn has started to combine her interest in sewing with rug hooking to create “hooked wearables”.
One of Marilyn’s pieces forms part of the Hooked Tapestry commissioned for the Cupids 400 Anniversary Project and she has taken first prize in several fairs and exhibitions.
Marilyn has served on the Executive of the Newfoundland Guild in the capacity of Rug School Committee Chairperson.
Marilyn creates an outport scene on a mat like no other. She is a juried rug hooker for the Craft Council of Newfoundland and her pieces can be found at Devon House and she is available for consignment pieces.
- Rug Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2012
- Craft Council of Newfoundland and Labrador
Linda has been a rug hooker since her grandmothers taught when she was just a small child. But it was during a rug hooking class on Change Islands in 1994, offered by Elizabeth Walker, a Newfoundlander living in New Jersey, that Linda came to fully realize and appreciate the gift she’d been given.
Coupled with the teachings of her grandmothers and a Bachelor of Fine Arts under her belt, received in 2007, there’s not much in textile art that Linda hasn’t tried, conquered and is willing and able to pass on to both the experienced or the novice rug hooker.
Drawing from her experiences in drawing, painting, print making, sculpture, mixed media and installation art, Linda can help you turn strips of materials into works of art with the simple rug hooking tool.
Mix this experience with a good dose of Newfoundland and Labrador patriotism, along with an endless amount of energy, love of people and a whole lot of fun, Linda’s class is not one you’d want to miss.
- Rug Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador Teacher Certification 2003
- Founder Rug Hooking Guild of Newfoundland and Labrador
- RHGNL Very First President
- Recipient of the Order of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004
A rug hooker by accident! Linda attended a beginner workshop with a friend as company. The friend found it was ‘not her thing’. Linda however became ‘hooked’
Since Linda joined RHGNL in 2006, she has taken classes from some of the best RHGNL has to offer including Joan Foster, Linda Low, Venissa Fancy as well as Jon Ciemiewicz,
Linda has been an active guild member, especially in the area of instruction. Completing her own training instruction in 2009, she has played a pivotal role in researching, developing and delivering our Guild Teacher Instruction Program.
Through her Beginner, Beginner Plus, Traditional Newfoundland and Create Your Own Design classes, Linda brings inspiration to her students and draws out their inner creativity.
A retired nurse, currently living in the beautiful little community of Newtown, Bonavista Bay, NL, Linda draws on a variety of subject matters to create her pieces and loves to include many fibers into her projects.
Whether you are a novice or an experienced rug hooker, taking a class with Linda Tippett is not an opportunity to be missed. Her calm, forthright demeanour allows you to learn in such a way you walk away feeling you can accomplish anything.
- Rug Hooking Guild Newfoundland and Labrador, Teacher Certification 2009